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Theories of language and cognition - Processing the Environment - MCAT - Khan Academy

The first part of the volume discusses the relationship between language and cognition as studied in various disciplines, from psychology to philosophy to anthropology to linguistics, with chapters written by some of the major thinkers in each discipline. The second part concerns language and cognition in bilinguals. Following an introductory overview and contributions from established figures in the field, bilingual cognition researchers provide examples of their latest research on topics including time, space, motion, colors, and emotion. The third part discusses practical applications of the idea of bilingual cognition, such as marketing and translation.

The volume is essential reading for researchers and postgraduate students with an interest in language and cognition, or in bilingualism and second languages. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Other Editions 6.

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Hyojung rated it liked it Oct 25, Nicky rated it really liked it Feb 26, Darielle Apilas rated it it was amazing Oct 04, Ned Quevedo marked it as to-read Jul 16, Pamela marked it as to-read Jul 19, Liudmyla Beraud marked it as to-read Apr 25, Mohsen Mohammed added it Sep 05, Neverdust marked it as to-read Sep 09, Derrick Mah marked it as to-read Sep 18, Rosaria Tirone marked it as to-read Oct 16, Malika added it Jan 04, Ela marked it as to-read Oct 16, Additionally, when such objective proficiency measures are combined with cognitive tasks, we can begin to understand what cognitive processes may underlie different language processes e.

Moreover, objective proficiency measures also better control for cultural differences in self-ratings of language proficiency e.

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Spanish-English bilinguals. Thus, we recommend that future research incorporate both language history questionnaires that capture self-ratings of language proficiency e. Moreover, given that some bilinguals have two first languages that were acquired simultaneously e. However, evidence suggests that the larger sociolinguistic context surrounding speakers — both bilingual and monolingual — may affect language and cognition. For instance, a bilingual who speaks a language that is uncommon in their sociolinguistic context would not have as many opportunities to use that language — or switch between their two languages—as a bilingual who speaks a language that is common in their sociolinguistic context.

Accordingly, the Adaptive Control Hypothesis Green and Abutalebi, ; Abutalebi and Green, posits that the ways in which bilinguals use their languages with interlocutors has consequences for language and cognitive control. Indeed, a meta-analysis of studies on the effect of bilingualism on cognition found location-based differences in effect sizes, with effect sizes for studies conducted in Europe being significantly greater than those for studies conducted in the United States and the Middle East Adesope et al.

Altogether, such evidence provides insight into the kinds of language experiences that may be critical when describing research participants. Simply knowing whether individuals are immersed in the first or second language and whether they are proficient or not, is not sufficient.

The benefits of a bilingual brain in the modern world

Although it would be ideal to use methods such as daily diaries and speech recorders e. Given the lack of detailed information about participants in the majority of presently published works, it is unsurprising that it is still largely unknown how these different language experiences and skills interact to affect cognition.

However, recent research suggests that a complex relation exists between language processing, language regulation, and cognitive control e. A promising direction for the field is to exploit the variability in both current and previous language experiences by examining individual differences — both longitudinally and cross-sectionally — and by conducting more mechanistic studies. As bilingualism is caused by life circumstances rather than experimental ones, bilingualism research has traditionally involved quasi-experimental designs, which is problematic for establishing causality for a review, see Laine and Lehtonen, in press.

One way to overcome this problem is by conducting longitudinal studies to control random variation across time in order to isolate the effects of bilingualism due to cumulative language experience. Longitudinal designs have proven to be particularly sensitive to the consequences of bilingualism over the course of development.

The model revealed different trajectories for monolinguals, bilinguals, and learners i. Children who were bilingual at the beginning of Head Start had the highest executive function performance of the three groups and showed the steepest growth over time. The learners had the lowest performance of all groups but showed more accelerated growth and higher executive function skill at Kindergarten entry compared to their monolingual peers. Longitudinal designs not only reveal that the relation between language and cognition differs across the lifespan, but importantly, they suggest that the effects of bilingual language experience may impact developmental and learning trajectories.

Although longitudinal designs are especially informative, the expense associated with such a design often precludes its feasibility.

There are cognitive benefits to being a bilingual kid that pay off in adulthood

One way to overcome this problem is to conduct short-term longitudinal studies or lab-based training studies that expose participants to a second language and to examine the neural or behavioral changes that occur as a result of that exposure e. Training studies have also been used to examine how particular bilingual language skills such as language—switching might impact cognitive control Zhang et al. Given the greater experimental control afforded by these approaches, we propose that examining individual differences through learning and training studies will make some important contributions to the field of bilingualism.

In this article, we suggest that much of the controversy in bilingualism research stems from dealing with the variability in bilingual language experiences inappropriately both at theoretical and methodological levels. To study the consequences of knowing multiple languages in its many forms, we must learn to appropriately measure that variation and design studies that can exploit that variation without confounding it with other factors.

First, we suggest that if research findings pose problems for existing accounts, we must actively revise those accounts to accommodate for the complexity of the data. Second, we suggest that sensitively measuring and describing the language histories and skills of participants using behavioral and self-report measures will more accurately allow us to capture the effects of bilingualism.

Lastly, we propose that diversifying research design by using more short or long-term longitudinal studies and by focusing more on individual differences, we can better evaluate how second language experiences affects cognition while avoiding setbacks of quasi-experimental designs. The recommendations proposed in this paper will enable us to move beyond simple group comparisons and to exploit variation to elucidate the relation among language experience, mind, and brain.

Each co-author contributed equally in writing the manuscript and prepared it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Abutalebi, J. Neuroimaging of language control in bilinguals: neural adaptation and reserve.

Adesope, O. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive correlates of bilingualism. Alladi, S. Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology 81, — Anastasi, A. Oxford: Macmillan. Google Scholar. Antoniou, M. The bilingual advantage in phonetic learning. Atagi, N. Au, T. Overhearing a language during childhood.

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Bilingualism: Language and Cognition - Wikipedia

Approaches Biling. Baum, S. Moving toward a neuroplasticity view of bilingualism, executive control, and aging. Bialystok, E. Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The signal and the noise. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task. Aging 19, — Bice, K. Native language change during early stages of second language learning. Neuroreport 26, — Carlson, S. Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Costa, A. Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: evidence from the ANT task.

Cognition , 59— Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias? De Houwer, A.