Since all but one of Austen's books were originally published "on commission", the risks of overproduction were largely hers or Cassandra's after her death and publishers may have been more willing to produce larger editions than was normal practice when their own funds were at risk. Editions of popular works of non-fiction were often much larger. While Mansfield Park was ignored by reviewers, it was very popular with readers. All copies were sold within six months, and Austen's earnings on this novel were larger than for any of her other novels. Unknown to Austen, her novels were translated into French and published in cheaply produced, pirated editions in France.
Austen learned that the Prince Regent admired her novels and kept a set at each of his residences. Though Austen disliked the Prince Regent, she could scarcely refuse the request. In mid Austen moved her work from Egerton to John Murray , a better known London publisher, [k] who published Emma in December and a second edition of Mansfield Park in February Emma sold well, but the new edition of Mansfield Park did poorly, and this failure offset most of the income from Emma.
These were the last of Austen's novels to be published during her lifetime. She completed her first draft in July In addition, shortly after the publication of Emma , Henry Austen repurchased the copyright for Susan from Crosby. Austen was forced to postpone publishing either of these completed novels by family financial troubles. Henry Austen's bank failed in March , depriving him of all of his assets, leaving him deeply in debt and losing Edward, James, and Frank Austen large sums.
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Henry and Frank could no longer afford the contributions they had made to support their mother and sisters. Austen was feeling unwell by early , but ignored the warning signs. By the middle of that year, her decline was unmistakable, and she began a slow, irregular deterioration. Vincent Cope's retrospective diagnosis and list her cause of death as Addison's disease , although her final illness has also been described as resulting from Hodgkin's lymphoma. She continued to work in spite of her illness. Dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliots , she rewrote the final two chapters, which she finished on 6 August In the novel, Austen mocked hypochondriacs and though she describes the heroine as "bilious", five days after abandoning the novel she wrote of herself that she was turning "every wrong colour" and living "chiefly on the sofa".
Austen made light of her condition, describing it as "bile" and rheumatism. As her illness progressed, she experienced difficulty walking and lacked energy; by mid-April she was confined to bed. In May Cassandra and Henry brought her to Winchester for treatment, by which time she suffered agonising pain and welcomed death. Henry, through his clerical connections, arranged for his sister to be buried in the north aisle of the nave of Winchester Cathedral. The epitaph composed by her brother James praises Austen's personal qualities, expresses hope for her salvation and mentions the "extraordinary endowments of her mind", but does not explicitly mention her achievements as a writer.
Tomalin describes it as "a loving and polished eulogy". In Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of her novels, and over the following winter published five illustrated volumes as part of his Standard Novels series. In October , Bentley released the first collected edition of her works. Since then, Austen's novels have been continuously in print.
Austen's works critique the sentimental novels of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. Leavis and Ian Watt placed her in the tradition of Richardson and Fielding; both believe that she used their tradition of "irony, realism and satire to form an author superior to both".
Walter Scott noted Austen's "resistance to the trashy sensationalism of much of modern fiction—'the ephemeral productions which supply the regular demand of watering places and circulating libraries'".
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Yet in Northanger Abbey she alludes to the trope, with the heroine, Catherine, anticipating a move to a remote locale. Rather than full-scale rejection or parody, Austen transforms the genre, juxtaposing reality, with descriptions of elegant rooms and modern comforts, against the heroine's "novel-fueled" desires. Richardson's Pamela , the prototype for the sentimental novel, is a didactic love story with a happy ending, written at a time women were beginning to have the right to choose husbands and yet were restricted by social conventions.
The narrative style utilises free indirect speech —she was the first English novelist to do so extensively—through which she had the ability to present a character's thoughts directly to the reader and yet still retain narrative control.
The style allows an author to vary discourse between the narrator's voice and values and those of the characters. Austen had a natural ear for speech and dialogue, according to scholar Mary Lascelles "Few novelists can be more scrupulous than Jane Austen as to the phrasing and thoughts of their characters. When Elizabeth Bennett rejects Darcy, her stilted speech and the convoluted sentence structure reveals that he has wounded her: .
From the very beginning, from the first moment I may almost say, of my acquaintance with you, your manners impressing me with the fullest belief of your arrogance, your conceit, and your selfish disdain of the feelings of others, were such as to form that the groundwork of disapprobation, on which succeeding events have built so immovable a dislike.
And I had not known you a month before I felt that you were the last man in the world whom I could ever be prevailed on to marry. Austen's plots highlight women's traditional dependence on marriage to secure social standing and economic security. He believes that the well-spring of her wit and irony is her own attitude that comedy "is the saving grace of life". Samuel Johnson 's influence is evident, in that she follows his advice to write "a representation of life as may excite mirth".
Her humour comes from her modesty and lack of superiority, allowing her most successful characters, such as Elizabeth Bennet, to transcend the trivialities of life, which the more foolish characters are overly absorbed in.
Critic Robert Polhemus writes, "To appreciate the drama and achievement of Austen, we need to realize how deep was her passion for both reverence and ridicule As Austen's works were published anonymously, they brought her little personal renown. They were fashionable among opinion-makers, but were rarely reviewed. Using the review as a platform to defend the then-disreputable genre of the novel, he praised Austen's realism. However, Whately denied having authored the review, which drew favourable comparisons between Austen and such acknowledged greats as Homer and Shakespeare , and praised the dramatic qualities of her narrative.
Scott and Whately set the tone for almost all subsequent 19th-century Austen criticism. Because Austen's novels did not conform to Romantic and Victorian expectations that "powerful emotion [be] authenticated by an egregious display of sound and colour in the writing",  19th-century critics and audiences preferred the works of Charles Dickens and George Eliot. Austen had many admiring readers in the 19th century, who considered themselves part of a literary elite. Philosopher and literary critic George Henry Lewes expressed this viewpoint in a series of enthusiastic articles published in the s and s.
They referred to themselves as Janeites in order to distinguish themselves from the masses who did not properly understand her works. For example, Henry James responded negatively to what he described as "a beguiled infatuation" with Austen, a rising tide of public interest that exceeded Austen's "intrinsic merit and interest". Lawrence and Kingsley Amis, but in "every case the adverse judgement merely reveals the special limitations or eccentricities of the critic, leaving Jane Austen relatively untouched".
Several of Austen's works have been subject to academic study. The first dissertation on Austen was published in , by George Pellew, a student at Harvard University.
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Chapman's edition of Austen's collected works. Not only was it the first scholarly edition of Austen's works, it was also the first scholarly edition of any English novelist. The Chapman text has remained the basis for all subsequent published editions of Austen's works. Concern arose that academics were taking over Austen criticism and that it was becoming increasingly esoteric, a debate that has continued since.
The period since World War II has seen more scholarship on Austen using a diversity of critical approaches, including feminist theory , and perhaps most controversially, postcolonial theory. The continuing disconnection between the popular appreciation of Austen, particularly by modern Janeites , and the academic appreciation of Austen has widened considerably.
Austen's novels have resulted in sequels, prequels and adaptations of almost every type, from soft-core pornography to fantasy. From the 19th century, her family members published conclusions to her incomplete novels, and by there were over printed adaptations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English novelist. Not to be confused with Jane G. Portrait, c. Further information: Timeline of Jane Austen. Further information: Styles and themes of Jane Austen.
Main article: Styles and themes of Jane Austen. The hair was curled, and the maid sent away, and Emma sat down to think and be miserable.
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It was a wretched business, indeed! Such an overthrow of everything she had been wishing for! Such a development of every thing most unwelcome! This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.
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Winchester Cathedral , where Austen is buried, and her memorial gravestone in the nave of the Cathedral. Main article: Jane Austen in popular culture. The original sketch, according to relatives who knew Jane Austen well, was not a good likeness. He died in India in , with Philadelphia unaware until the news reached her a year later, fortuitously as George and Cassandra were visiting. In a letter of 16 February to her friend Martha Lloyd, Austen says referring to the Prince's wife, whom he treated notoriously badly "I hate her Husband".
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Collins" as evidence that contemporary critics felt that works oriented toward the interests and concerns of women were intrinsically less important and less worthy of critical notice than works mostly non-fiction oriented towards men. For more information see Southam , — Vol VI.
Chapman and B.
Catharine and Other Writings.